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International Journal of Costume and Fashion - Vol. 21 , No. 1

[ Article ]
International Journal of Costume and Fashion - Vol. 21, No. 1, pp.38-53
Abbreviation: IJCF
ISSN: 2233-9051 (Print) 2288-7490 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Jun 2021
Received 18 May 2021 Revised 07 Jun 2021 Accepted 14 Jun 2021

Effect of Appearance Instrumentality on the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery: Moderated Mediation Effects of Ambivalent Emotions toward Attractive Friends and Appearance Appreciation
Sunwoo Kim
Research Assistant Professor, Research Institute of Human Ecology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea

Correspondence to :

Funding Information ▼

Citation Kim, S. (2021). Effect of appearance instrumentality on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery: Moderated mediation effects of ambivalent emotions toward attractive friends and appearance appreciation. International Journal of Costume and Fashion, 21(1), 38-53.


This study examined the moderated mediation effect of appearance appreciation on the mediated relationship among appearance instrumentality, ambivalent emotions toward attractive friends, and the acceptance of cosmetic surgery. The research model included four hypotheses to examine this moderated mediation effect. Data were collected through an online survey, and a final sample of 651 Korean women in their 20s to 40s was analyzed. The data were analyzed using Baron and Kenny's method and a moderated mediation method with SPSS Macro. The results showed that the awareness of appearance instrumentality influenced the acceptance of cosmetic surgery, and ambivalent emotions toward attractive friends mediated this influence. Additionally, the effect of ambivalent emotions toward attractive friends on the acceptance of cosmetic surgery was mediated by the degree of appearance appreciation indicating that high levels of appearance appreciation counterbalanced the effect, and low levels of appearance appreciation reinforced the effect. This study verifies that one’s the degree appearance appreciation could offset the social influence of accepting cosmetic surgery.

Keywords: Appearance instrumentality, Acceptance of cosmetic surgery, Ambivalent emotions toward attractive friends, Appearance appreciation, Moderated mediation


This work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2018S1A5B5A07073377)

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