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International Journal of Costume and Fashion - Vol. 21 , No. 2

[ Article ]
International Journal of Costume and Fashion - Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 1-18
Abbreviation: IJCF
ISSN: 2233-9051 (Print) 2288-7490 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Dec 2021
Received 26 Feb 2021 Revised 13 Jun 2021 Accepted 01 Jul 2021

South Korean Fashion Media: Examining Beauty Ideals, Race, and the Prominence of Whiteness Between 2013 and 2017 in Céci Magazine
Eunji Choi ; Kelly L. Reddy-Best
Master’s alumna, Apparel Merchandising and Design program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA
Associate professor, Apparel Merchandising and Design program; Director and Curator Iowa State University Textiles and Clothing Museum, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA

Correspondence to :

Citation Choi, E., & Reddy-Best, K. L., (2021). South Korean fashion media: Examining beauty ideals, race, and the prominence of whiteness between 2013 and 2017 in Céci magazine. International Journal of Costume and Fashion, 21(2), 1-18.


The purpose of this research was to critically examine beauty ideals, specifically those related to race and racial hierarchies, with a focus on fashion magazines published in South Korea targeting South Korean women. We used the content analysis method to examine Céci magazine from 2013 to 2017. This magazine is highly popular, widely circulated in South Korea, and produced by a South Korean publisher. Each individual pictured in the magazine was coded into four categories: race, skin color, hair color, and facial characteristics. Descriptive statistics and Pearson’s chi-square were used to analyze the data. Overall, the magazines featured more Asian than White individuals, yet Asians conformed to significantly more White than Asian beauty ideals as well as other beauty ideals that are mostly unnatural to Asian women.

Keywords: Content analysis, Facial characteristics, Hair color, Skin color

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